It has been reported that, in the past, political activists have tried to influence web search results. They did that using link-bombing techniques to raise negative web pages with contents close to the their agendas to the top-10 search results. Google has admitted that this happen in the 2006 US Elections, but did it still happen in the all-important 2008 US Congressional Elections? In this paper we try to evaluate whether “gaming” the search engines during the election period is a widespread problem, how serious is it, and how search engines have tried to maintain the integrity of their search results.
Metaxas, P. Takis and Mustafaraj, Eni, "The Battle for the 2008 US Congressional Elections on the Web" (2009). Faculty Research and Scholarship. 203.