"Fake news" is a recent phenomenon, but misinformation and propaganda are not. Our new communication technologies make it easy for us to be exposed to high volumes of true, false, irrelevant, and unprovable information. Future AI is expected to amplify the problem even more. At the same time, our brains are reaching their limits in handling information. How should we respond to propaganda? Technology can help, but relying on it alone will not suffice in the long term. We also need ethical policies, laws, regulations, and trusted authorities, including factcheckers. However, we will not solve the problem without the active engagement of the educated citizen. Epistemological education, recognition of self biases and protection of our channels of communication and trusted networks are all needed to overcome the problem and continue our progress as democratic societies.
Zimdars, Melissa and Kembrew McLeod, eds. Fake News: Understanding Media and Misinformation in the Digital Age. MIT Press, 2018.